Научная аппаратура «Икарус»Dear visitors of Korolev Planet portal!

In this video report we will talk about scientific equipment «ICARUS». Representatives of RSC Energia, Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences and cosmonauts will tell you about the appointment of this equipment, will show its constituent elements and equipment installation.
Space experiment Uragan is conducted on the ISS RS since the first manned expedition. (The Experimental Testing of an Earth-Space System for Monitoring and Predicting the Development of Natural and Man-Made Disasters.) The pilot of the experiment is RSC Energia. (A report on this experiment can be viewed from the link https://gagarin.energia.ru/media-arhiv/category/18-qq.html).
With the help of the equipment «ICARUS» included in this experiment, it is planned to work out the technology of global control from the space of migration routes for birds and animals. The aim is to determine the influence of various environmental factors on animals and birds. This technology will allow monitoring the ecological situation on the migration routes and preventing catastrophic phenomena on the planet.

Научная аппаратура «Икарус»
Научная аппаратура «Икарус»

Editorial note: M.Y.Belyaev is Doctor of Engineering Science, professor, research supervisor of the space experiment (SE) Uragan; RSC Energia is the principal investigator of the SE Uragan. He tells in his interview about the participation of RSC Energia in the project "ICARUS"..

Беляев Михаил ЮрьевичMikhail Yurievich Belyaev: I work at RSC Energia, and first I’d like to say a few words about this famous corporation. RSC Energia has under its belt the first satellite Sputnik, Gagarin’s mission, first picture of the far side of the Moon, missions to Venus and Mars, Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, space stations Salyut and Mir, Energia-Buran system, Sea Launch, the Russian Segment of the ISSР and many other projects.
RSC Energia is also responsible for manufacturing, delivery and operation of all the scientific equipment, which is installed on manned space stations, including the ISS. In particular, RSC Energia is responsible for the new ICARUS equipment built by German specialists under a joint project with Russian scientists. It should be noted that we have conducted a large number of joint experiments with German scientists both on the international station and, earlier, onboard Mir, and all of them were successful, so we hope that this experiment will also be a success.
On the Russian Segment we also do experiments to study Earth. For example, in the Russian science program this ICARUS equipment is included in the Uragan experiment, which is being carried out on the Russian Segment of the ISS. In the Uragan experiment we study potentially dangerous, catastrophic phenomena on the Earth surface, develop technologies and equipment for studying potentially dangerous phenomena, environmental problems, etc. For example, the subjects of research are glaciers, floods, fires, etc.
One of the important tasks is studying changes in the climate. Scientist have known for a long time that animal behavior can help us to understand these potentially dangerous, catastrophic phenomena. For example, prior to occurrence of some natural disasters, animal and birds change their patterns of migration. It is clear that this will let us study catastrophic phenomena. Certainly, we thought it interesting, and we are going to use the ICARUS equipment within the framework of our Uragan experiment, within the framework of our agreement with German scientists.
We plan to use data from the ICARUS equipment not only to study animal and bird migrations. For example, this system can also be used to track the movement of icebergs and glaciers. It can be used to study sea currents, can even be used to monitor the movement of dangerous cargoes. All of this is related to the Uragan experiment, and we are planning to do such work in the future.

Editorial note The Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences is one of the participants of the project The director of the institute Olga Solomina tells in his interview about the need to study the migration routes of birds and animals.

Соломина Ольга НиколаевнаOlga Solomina: “I represent the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, my name is Olga Solomina, I’m the director of that institute. Project ICARUS is being carried out by our biogeographers, ornithologists, who have been cooperating with their German colleagues for a long time.
Grigory Tertitsky, from the Institute of Geography, and Martin Vikelsky, director of the Institute of Ornithology from the German side, have been studying migrations of seagulls, and subsequently, out of that project, grew the cooperation we are talking about today.
Geography is such an ancient word, an antique word, and many people have come to regard geography as a very conservative science, a descriptive science, while in reality the modern geography makes extensive use of space research data, and, in particular, our institute has a long history of cooperation with State Corporation Roscosmos and RSC Energia. We use images taken from onboard spacecraft to observe, for example, dangerous phenomena, glacier movements, etc.
International cooperation in studying animal migration is very important, since animals move ignoring political boundaries, and, of course, this is the only way to comprehensively study this phenomenon on the global level.
Studying animal migration is important not only from the standpoint of biology, to understand migration mechanisms as such, this is also important from the practical standpoint, since animal are carriers of diseases. I we hope to obtain a new level of data, to achieve a new level of detail in understanding of how the migration process unfolds. This is absolutely impossible without new technologies and participation of all the partners involved in the project (both Roscosmos, RSC Energia and our German partners), without international cooperation.

Editorial note: Cosmonauts Oleg Artemiev and Anton Shkaplerov will mount the equipment inside the ISS RS. In their report, cosmonauts will tell in detail about the scientific equipment of ICARUS, will show the components of the equipment and the installation features.

Олег Артемьев и Антон ШкаплеровDear visitors to the Korolev Planet web site,
Today I, Oleg Artemiev, flight engineer of Expedition 55 to the International Space Station, and I, crew commander Anton Shkaplerov, are going to install scientific equipment ICARUS inside the pressurized cabin of the Service Module. Placed on the table is the hardware which we are going to install today and tomorrow.
I’m holding in my hands the control computer of the ICARUS equipment (OBC-I). It is an element of the global monitoring system to track migrations of birds and animals with body mass of 200 grams and higher. This makes it possible to considerably increase the number of bird species that can be monitored. Ornithologists all over the world are going to attach to birds small sensors called tags weighing 5 grams. Data from tags will be received at the ISS by the ICARUS antenna unit which we are going to install on the outer surface of the ISS Service Module during a space walk. The obtained data will be processed by the OBC-I, which I’m holding in my hands and transmitted to the Mission Control Center in Moscow to be subsequently forwarded to the scientists at the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the German Institute of Ornithology.
The system can monitor movements of up to 60 thousand birds and animals all over the world.
The ICARUS equipment was developed under an agreement between the German Aerospace Center and the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos. Under this agreement a Russian space experiment Uragan is combined with the German project ICARUS. I’ve just shown you the control computer OBC-I developed in Germany, and now you can see in my hands Russian cables developed by RSC Energia to connect to the support systems of the ISS RS.
This cable hooks up OBC-I to the satellite navigation equipment in order to synchronize OBC-I time to within 5 milliseconds. OBC-I requires this level of precision so as to avoid running down the very small battery of the tag during its communications session with the ICARUS antenna unit.
I now I’m going to show you the place where the OBC-I unit is to be installed.
Here is the place where the OBC-I unit is to be installed. As you can see, this place is already occupied by various hardware, and that’s why I’m going to install on special brackets developed by RSC Energia specialists. I’m going to do this work together with the crew commander.
And now I’m going to show the path along which I’m going to route the ICARUS cables in order to connect the OBC-I computer to power, telemetry, computer network, satellite navigation and to pressure-sealed feed-throughs. To these feed-throughs, but this time from the outside of the space station, I’m going to connect the ICARUS antenna unit during a spacewalk in August, and after that the ICARUS equipment will be fully connected to the support systems of the Russian Segment.
And now I’m showing you the Interface Cloning Unit (ICU) which I’m going to use to connect the OBC-I computer to the computer network of the Russian Segment, so that it can forward data received from tags to MCC Moscow. It is also through ICU that OBC-I will receive data for tags, which will then be forwarded to ICARUS antenna unit on the outside of the station, and then on to tags.
After the installation of the OBC-I unit and cable routing, MCC plans to run a functional check of the OBC-I unit, in which I’m going to take part. After switching on power, I’m going to make sure that green lights on the unit come on. This will mean that the circuit has been set up correctly and it’s OK to start preparing for a spacewalk to install the ICARUS antenna unit.

Editorial note. After the installation of the OBC-I unit and cable routing, the functional check of the OBC-I unit has been run. The OBC-I unit operates normally.





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