sp_korolev_mSergei Pavlovich Korolev is an outstanding design engineer and scientists who worked in the field of missile and space rocket technology. Twice Hero of Socialist Labor, winner of Lenin Prize, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he is the developer of our country’s strategic missile weapons and the farther of practical cosmonautics.

In 1955, long before the flight tests of the R-7 rocket, S.P. Korolev, M.V. Keldysh, M.K. Tikhonravov submitted to the government a proposal to use R-7 to put into space an artificial Earth satellite. The government gave support to this initiative. In August 1956 the design bureau headed by Sergei Korolev became a separate organization, with S.P. Korolev appointed as its chief designer and director. Today this organization is called S.P.Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia. 
On October 4, 1957, this team under direction of S.P. Korolev launched into the low Earth orbit the world’s first artificial Earth satellite. Its flight was a stunning success and it won our country high international standing.

On April 12, 1961, S.P. Korolev once again astounded the world. Having developed manned spacecraft Vostok, he achieved the world’s first manned mission into space carried out by a citizen of USSR Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin.
In 1964 the team under the direction of S.P.Korolev develops a new version of the manned spacecraft called Voskhod. Unlike Vostok, the new spacecraft was a multi-seater and had a soft landing system, a backup retrorocket, and was equipped with new instrumentation.

On March 18, 1965, during the flight of Voskhod-2, cosmonaut Aleksei Archipovich Leonov made the world’s first spacewalk using a special airlock chamber. While being outside the spacecraft, the cosmonaut moved away from it up to a distance of five meters, inspected the outer surface of the spacecraft, switched on the movie camera, successfully conducted a program of studies and visual observations and safely returned into the spacecraft.

The spacewalk carried out during the flight of Voskhod-2 clearly demonstrated the feasibility of conducting assembly work in space, and, therefore, establishing there long-duration manned space stations.

Looking back at the achievements in manned space exploration accomplished in the lifetime of S.P. Korolev, one can’t fail to notice a clear-cut methodical sequence of each step taken by S.P. Korolev.
Today S.P.Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia carries on the traditions of its founder. It is a leading Russian rocket and space company, the prime organization for manned space systems. The work conducted here also includes development of unmanned space and rocket systems (launch vehicles and orbit-to-orbit transportation), high-technology systems for various purposes.
If we consider only the year 2012, which has just ended, its major results look as follows:
- accomplished were the launches and missions of 4 manned spacecraft Soyuz TMA and missions of 4 unmanned spacecraft Progress M under the program of the International Space Station (ISS). The dockings of Progress M-16M and Progress M-17M spacecraft with ISS were for the first time conducted using a “quick” docking profile just several hours into the flight;
- three launches of integrated launch vehicles Zenit-3SL with upper stages DM-SL were carried out from the launch platform of the Sea Launch system:  delivered to geostationary orbits were spacecraft Intelsat-19, Intelsat-21, Eutelsat-70B;
- planned launches under the program of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense were completed;
 - work continued to develop a new-generation spacecraft and new ISS modules;
- work was done to develop unmanned spacecraft for domestic and foreign customers, and launch vehicles with improved performance. Tangible growth prospects have been outlined for the work on the transportation and power module, new projects of unmanned and manned space systems for various purposes in broad cooperation with biggest companies from abroad.

Production and testing facilities are being gradually re-equipped with the aim of reaching the state-of-the-art level of technology.

It should be noted that all the achievements in the previous years as well as the future prospects are based on the traditions of the Korolev school, professionalism and experience of the most skilled employees of the company, reliable work of subcontractors.

The program for the new year of 2013 is even more intensive, not only in terms of the number of launches and their objectives, but also in terms of laying the groundwork for the subsequent years.

Four manned Soyuz TMA spacecraft will have to be launched, with docking to be performed using the “quick” docking profile tested on the unmanned cargo spacecraft. Four launches and dockings of cargo spacecraft Progress M are to be performed, support is to be provided for the docking with the station and integration into the Russian Segment of the next European ATV spacecraft. There are plans to add to the Russian Segment by the end of the year the multipurpose lab module Nauka.
Three upper stages Block DM will be used in the programs Sea Launch and Land Launch. Two spacecraft for special applications developed by RSC Energia are to be delivered into a low Earth orbit.

The work will proceed on a full scale to build test models of the new-generation spacecraft, as well as a flight model for its developmental testing, a node module for ISS. Design studies will be conducted on scientific and power module, spacecraft OKA-T serviced at the ISS, upper stage Block DM with improved performance, unmanned spacecraft for various purposes.

Every year in Korolev, the town of science, and in Moscow ceremonies are held to mark the anniversary of the birth of academician Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Jan 12, 1907 – Jan 14, 1966). Taking part in the ceremonies are the RSC Energia managers and representatives of the workforce, representatives of the administration and general public of Korolev; Corporation veterans, relatives and associates of S.P.Korolev, cosmonauts, young scientists and professionals, as well as winners of the International Space Contest and All-Russian contests in various disciplines for high-school students.


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