Из Архива.  «Пилотируемая экспедиция на Марс».1987г.

The editorial board of the Korolev's Planet website begins to publish materials dedicated to manned exploration of Mars.

This time we offer to the website’s visitors a unique archive document “Manned Mission to Mars”. The document published in 1987 was approved by an outstanding scientist, academician, general designer of NPO Energia Valentin Petrovich Glushko, under whose direction the project of reusable Buran orbiter using heavy launch vehicle Energia was carried out.

Had it not been for the breakup of the USSR, we would have already visited Mars. But as it is, nobody has yet been there. So, we have a chance. 

The first spacecraft to Venus

"Венера-1"
Venera-1

For the first missions to Venus the Special Design Bureau No.1 (OKB-1 now known as RSC Energia) was preparing two spacecraft under the designation 1VA. The objective of the missions was to gain an experience of getting to Venus, conducting research on the way from the Earth to Venus and during approach to the Earth’s mysterious neighbor. It was impossible to prepare a descent vehicle structure and hardware for direct studies of the planetary atmosphere and surface within the time limits dictated by celestial mechanics.
The structure of the Venera-1 spacecraft was a cylinder with a spherical upper portion. The spacecraft was 2.035 meters in length, and 1.05 meters in diameter. The spacecraft had two solar arrays which charged silver-zinc storage batteries. Attached to the outer surface of the spacecraft structure was a 2-meter parabolic dish antenna, designed to transmit data to Earth at the 922.8 MHz frequency (32 cm wavelength). Installed on the spacecraft were scientific instruments: magnetometer, two ion traps for measuring solar wind parameters, micrometeorite detector, Geiger counter and scintillation detector for measuring radiation in space. Installed in the lower part of the spacecraft was propulsion system KDU-414, intended for correcting the flight path. The spacecraft mass is 643.5 kg.
The upper portion of the spacecraft was an air-tight spherical chamber filled with nitrogen under pressure of 1.2 atmospheres. Contained within this sphere was a so-called ‘pennant’, a small globe with outlines of the Earth continents. Inside the globe was a medal depicting the trajectory from Earth to Venus. The reverse of the medal carried the state emblem of the Soviet Union. This chamber was supposed to float on the surface of the hypothesized venusian ocean.

Медицинский КЭ «Альгометрия». Исследование болевой чувствительности у человека в условиях космического полетаThe report of cosmonauts Mikhail Kornienko and Sergey Volkov on “Algometry” space experiment.

M. Kornienko: Dear visitors of the “Planeta Koroleva” portal!
Today we, the International Space Station cosmonauts, Sergey Volkov and Mikhail Kornienko, want to tell your about one more medical experiment, which is being conducted onboard the International Space Station, it is called “Algometry”.
This experiment relates to “Human in space” biomedical researches section. The experiment is produced by the Institute of Biomedical Problems. It is a new experiment, which started last year onboard the ISS.
The “algometry” experiment is an investigation of human’s pain sensitivity in the space flight conditions. The experiment is fulfilled in order to update methods of delivery of health care to cosmonauts during space flight. This method gets the greatest urgency in perspective long-duration interplanetary flights, when there is no possibility of the injured person’s evacuation from the flight vehicle board.

Создание Зарывающейся лунной станции и Лунной инженерной машины

The editorial board of the Korolev's Planet website continues to publish materials dedicated to lunar exploration.
This time we offer to the website’s visitors a unique archive document “Report on the development of lunar stations and engineering construction vehicles”. The report was published in 1968, it was approved by S.P.Korolev’s successor Vasili Pavlovich Mishin, who for 20 years (1946-1966) had been S.P.Korolev’s first deputy at Special Design Bureau 1 (OKB-1), and in 1968 was the chief designer of the Central Design Bureau for Experimental Machine-building (TsKBM), which was the name given to OKB-1 after S.P.Korolev died (today it is known as RSC Energia).
The report provides a detailed description of the lunar engineering machine, the burrowing lunar station and lunar construction combine options.

The ISS is the largest international high-technology project

15 лет – непрерывному пребыванию человека в космосе, на Международной космической станции (МКС)

More than 20 years ago, on March 15, 1993, the general director of Roskosmos Y.N.Koptev and general designer of S.P.Korolev RSC Energia Y.P.Semenov submitted to NASA management a proposal to construct an international space station based on the Russian project of space station Mir-2 and US space station Freedom.

Годовая международная программа медико-биологических исследований. Экспедиции МКС-43 - МКС-46

Reports of Mikhail Kornienko and Scott Kelly

Dear visitors to the Korolev Planet web site,
My today’s broadcast is dedicated to the one-year biomedical research program, which has been going on onboard the ISS since March of this year and, accordingly, will end in the next year 2016. The participants in this international program are me, the cosmonaut of Russia Mikhail Kornienko, and NASA astronaut Scott Kelly.
This one-year medical program was designed to improve and develop a medical support system for long-duration space missions, including missions to other planets, to obtain proof that it is possible to keep humans healthy and fully capable of working during and after a long-duration spaceflight.

Космический эксперимент «Контур-2». Первый робототехнический эксперимент на борту РС МКС

SE Kontur-2. The experiment purpose: development test of remote control procedures of on-planet robots from orbital spacecraft.

Reports of flight engineers Oleg Kononenko and Mikhail Kornienko.

Космический эксперимент Кулоновский кристалл. Исследование плазмы в условиях микрогравитации

Медицинский КЭ «Кардиовектор»

The report involved:

  • flight engineer Shkaplerov Anton,
  • flight engineer Samokutiayev Alexander

All experiments at the ISS Russian Segment are fulfilled in accordance with long-term Program of scientific application studies and experiments (NPI). The Program has experiments arranged into groups according to the scientific and technical researches' trends. One of the researches' trends is the research "Human in Space". The experiments connected with medical maintenance of manned space flights, including perspective of the flight to other planets, correspond to this trend.

From the Archive. Space objects’ engineering on the basis of Н-1 heavy launcherThe editorial board of the web site begins the publication of a series of archive materials of the Experimental Design Bureau (OKB-1) headed by S.P. Korolev (at present called S.P. Korolev RSC Energia), related to the exploration of the Moon and other planets of the Solar System. Thus, the editorial board continues to discuss with the visitors to the web site the problems of lunar exploration, which was started with the publication.

http://gagarin.energia.ru/past-future/207-luna-shag-k-tekhnologiyam-osvoeniya-solnechnoj-sistemy.html

After the successful launch on December 23, 2014, of the heavy launch vehicle Angara-А5 the task of lunar exploration transitions from theory to practice.


We hope that the problem of exploration of the Moon and other planets of the Solar System, which S.P. Korolev did not live long enough to solve, will be solved by the current generation of Russian scientists and engineers, and let them be assisted in this undertaking by the materials developed under the leadership of S.P. Korolev.


Note: N-1 - the Soviet super-heavy launch vehicle was to put 75 tons of payloads into a low-Earth orbit and 16 tons into lunar orbit.

 

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