Dear visitors of the Planeta Koroleva portal!
Today we, the International Space Station cosmonauts, Alexey Ovchinin and Олег Skripochka, will tell you about a new Earth remote sensing experiment Dubrava. The beginning of carrying out this experiment coincided with our arrival onboard the ISS RS. We are the first to participate in its implementation.
The purpose of the experiment realization is to develop the forests’ inventory methods, and methods of defining impacts of natural and technogenic factors and forestry activity on tree cover from the ISS board using visually instrumental and spectrometric monitoring. And it is no wonder that Dubrava Space Experiment is directed by the Moscow State Forestry University (MGUL).
The forests are remaining to be one of the most important resources of our country, but in order not to reduce, but to multiply this treasure it is necessary to monitor the forest health regularly. The ISS is an ideal laboratory to develop methodology of forest monitoring by the experimental equipment. The ISS flies on a 24-hour basis in an orbital attitude, during which most windows of the Service Module, where we are now, look to the Earth.
The experiment uses photospectral equipment (FSS) and videospectral equipment (VSS).
|Рис. 1 Аппаратура ФСС||Рис. 2 Аппаратура ВСС|
I’m holding now the photospectral equipment (FSS). As you can see, the equipment is the combination of two devices: Nikon D3X camera and spectrometer. The availability in FSS equipment of the two at once simultaneously recording channels allows significantly expanding the Dubrava experiment’s tasks.
- Forest ecosystems’ degradation definition and development of level and kind of their damages determining methods:
a) large focal damages with trunk pests and diseases;
b) fields’ overgrowing by forest areas;
c) lost plantings and areas harmed as a result of fires and other natural influences;
d) Plantings’ areas damaged as a result of anthropogenic impacts and unfavourable ecological situation;
- development of remote monitoring methods to define quantitative and qualitative evaluations of forests’ biological diversity;
- definition of a number of forest plantings’ valuation characteristics;
- determination of forests’ centers of diseases at an early stage;
- definition of forests' fire hazard class.
FSS operates from batteries which need to be charged, of course. We turn on the equipment, turn on the photo camera and turn on spectrometer. The equipment can be installed on the bracket, and also we can make hand shooting if we definitely know the object of shooting. The information flows from the spectrometer and we see on the camera what we shoot and when.
We point the object and shoot.
One more important Dubrava experiment task is to conduct adjustment of optical observations with spectral measurements of forest areas to build specialized hyperspectral onboard equipment with developing technology of its use for forest’s space monitoring. In order to solve this problem there was developed VSS videospectral equipment.
Now I’m holding VVS equipment which is used in Dubrava experiment.
In this equipment both channels are placed in one monoblock. The monitor, by which the image is controlled, has handles for object’s pointing. The designer of both FSS equipment and VSS equipment is the Scientific Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems named after Sevchenko at Byelorussian State University.
Depending on experiment’s tasks FSS or VVS equipment is used.
Equipment FSS and VSS can be installed at the window №9, and then it is possible to carry out automatic shooting, and also to fulfill hand shooting. Now we will show you how to perform hand shooting by FSS and VSS equipment.
Now I hold in hands the videospectral equipment (VVS). It can be installed on the window. Then it will operate in automatic mode. But also it is possible to perform shooting while holding equipment in hands. I will show how it is done.
Here is the equipment. It is assembled, connected to the network, turned on at the monitor. We set the necessary for us data at the monitor and fulfill shooting of the defined object. For shooting it is possible to press the screen or the button, located on the handle.
Thanks for the attention!