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Here is the final broadcast of the quiz.Answering your questions from the ISS are cosmonauts of Expedition ISS-40.
Our thanks to all the participants in the quiz.

A. Skvortsov: Good day, dear participants in the quiz Ask the ISS Crew a Question! We, flight engineers of Expedition 40 to the International Space Station welcome the opportunity to answer some of your questions.
M. Suraev: Overall, we have received about 90 questions. All of them are very interesting and informative. Some of the questions are very original and have never been put to us before.
O. Artemiev: Unfortunately, for technical reasons, we won't be able to answer all of these interesting questions. That is why have chosen several questions which are, in our opinion, the most interesting and entertaining, and we'll try to answer them.


Answering questions from the winners of the quiz Ask the ISS Crew a Question
is the ISS40 crew commander Alexander Skvortsov

Hello, my name is Alexander Skvortsov, I'm a cosmonaut of Expedition 40 to the International Space Station. I'll be happy to answer today's questions that I liked.

This question is asked by Arsenii. He studies at school No. 5 in Korolev. Arsenii asks: "Could you please tell us what made you dream of becoming a cosmonaut, how did it all start?".
If you look at my family, my farther tried out for the cosmonaut corps back in 1965, the third recruitment in the corps, and he did make the cut. But then, after a year of training, he was dismissed from the corps for health reasons. But he kept the dream and these nice warm memories of the cosmonaut corps. And he passed them on to me and my brother. My farther was a military pilot. After being dismissed from the cosmonaut corps, he once again took up flying in regular air force units as a fighter pilot. We grew up with the roar of airplanes and also dreamed of becoming pilots.
Me and my brother have fulfilled this dream, we entered a flying school, graduated from it and went on to serve in air force units. Once I learned that recruitment in the cosmonaut corps was under way, and decided to take a shot at it. And I made it. This is now my second mission to the International Space Station. I fulfilled both my own dream and the dream of my farther. I'm glad to have followed in his steps.

Anastasia Klyueva asks a question: "Are there any 'labor dynasties' among cosmonauts?"
Yes, there were and there are. There are now three 'dynasties'. I'll start naming them in a sequential order, sons who followed in the footsteps of their fathers. These are Sergei Volkov, Roman Romanenko and Alexander Skvortsov, who is now right before you. Why did I list their names in that particular order? Because the fathers of Romanenko and Volkov did fly into space, while my father who had been selected to the cosmonaut corps was, unfortunately, dismissed for health reasons. But I have fulfilled his dream and my own dream, turned it into reality.

Vadim Ilyukhin asked a question that I liked: "Hello! I always wondered: do cosmonauts see dreams in space? If yes, what kind of dreams? Are they anything like dreams one sees on the ground?"
Today I can already answer this, because this is my second mission. It so happens that during ny first mission I couldn't say that I saw any dreams. I don't remember. During this mission I notice that I see dreams, and they are fairly interesting. They are no different from the dreams one sees on Earth. I could say that one sleeps better here in space than on the ground. You don't need to toss and turn, you just hover in suspended state and get a feeling that you sink into slumber and then re-emerge from it. Sometimes it does stay in your memory that there indeed was a dream.

Yelena asks a question: "How and what spacecraft can be used for immediate return to Earth in case of an emergency onboard the ISS?"
For emergency return to Earth we would use our Soyuz spacecraft in which we came here. Each of us knows what to do in an emergency situation. If there is no way back and the station is indeed in a condition when it has to be abandoned, Soyuz will always help us to get back to Earth.

Answering questions from the winners of the quiz Ask the ISS Crew a Question
is the ISS-40 crew flight engineer Maxim Suraev

A question from Ivan, who is 20 years old: "How is the engineering study called Endurance going? What materials are involved, what interesting conclusions have been drawn?".
I can answer this question thus: The experiment is conducted on the outer surface of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Its objective is to expose various new materials to factors of spaceflight environment. The major environmental factors during spaceflight are ionizing radiation and rapid temperature changes. A long stay in vacuum will make it clear what materials can be further used in space hardware and what materials cannot be used. These samples are also placed on the outer surface of the MRM2 module. The module which is not visible from the windows on the Russian Segment. That is why we can only see them when Soyuz docks with the MRM2 module. But during docking we don't have the time to inspect the kit. When the samples retrieval will be scheduled for an EVA, then we'll have a chance to have a look at them. As for the materials and obtained results, we hope that they will be made available on the official web site of TsNIIMash, which is the principal investigator in this experiment. Thank you for your question.

The question which we received from Dmitry Sukhov, 14 years old: "Hello, is it possible to measure from the ISS orbit the rate of ice melting on the Earth poles and estimate the ice life?"
One cannot see Earth poles from the Orbit of the International Space Station, but monitoring the condition of glaciers in various mountainous areas on Earth is included into the program of virtually every expedition. An analysis of photos of the glaciers taken during the same season but in different years, enables the scientists to draw conclusions that the surface area of the glaciers is gradually shrinking. Glaciers feed rivers and rivers feed the Earth's population, and that is why the systematic observation of the glaciers is a very important task. It can only be fulfilled through observations from space, and that's what we successfully do within the framework of the Uragan experiment.

The question which was sent to us by Emmi Collins, 33 years old: The question came to us in English and it sounds something like: "This summer a 3D-printer is to be delivered to the International Space Station. What are you planning to make in it and from what raw materials?"
I'll just say this: The printer is delivered to the US segment, and the work on it will be conducted under the US program. On the Russian Segment a 3D-printer will be delivered later. When this happens, we are going to dedicate to this event a special broadcast.

I'll try to answer the following question which caught my interest. This question was asked by Sergei, 56 year old. The question is about water in space used in the spacesuit as coolant.
I would answer this question thus: The Korolev's planet web site regularly posts educational materials on space hardware and technology. Those reports are contributed by specialists from RSC Energia, the company which develops manned space systems. Before long, you are going to find an answer to this and other questions in the pages of this web site. Thank you for your question.

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