Earth remote sensing. DUBRAVA space experiment
Dear visitors of the Planeta Koroleva portal!
Today we, the International Space Station cosmonauts, Alexey Ovchinin and Олег Skripochka, will tell you about a new Earth remote sensing experiment Dubrava. The beginning of carrying out this experiment coincided with our arrival onboard the ISS RS. We are the first to participate in its implementation.
The purpose of the experiment realization is to develop the forests’ inventory methods, and methods of defining impacts of natural and technogenic factors and forestry activity on tree cover from the ISS board using visually instrumental and spectrometric monitoring. And it is no wonder that Dubrava Space Experiment is directed by the Moscow State Forestry University (MGUL).
Conducting biotechnological experiment Regeneratsia-1 in SM module
Dear visitors of the Planeta Koroleva portal!
Today i, the International Space Station cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, want to tell you about biological experiment onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station – the Regeneratsia-1 experiment.
The experiment is staged by the Institute of Biomedical Problems.
The regeneration word meaning results from the Latin words “re” - again, once more and “genus” - family, generation. Regeneration is a revival, renewal, restoration of what had been destroyed. Figuratively it means the turn for the better.
In engineering regeneration means restoration of initial composition and properties of worked-out products with help of certain physical and chemical processes for their reuse. Thus the air regeneration by means of removing from the air waste products of human organism, for example, carbon dioxide, got widespread occurrence in cosmonautics.
We will talk to you today about regeneration in biology. In each living organism throughout all his life there are constantly the restoration and renewal processes. For example, human’s epidermis is constantly renewing, new hair falls out and grows. The birds periodically moult off feathers and grow new ones, and the mammals change fur cover. Such regeneration which is not usually connected with damages or loss, is called physiological. The regeneration taking place after the damage or loss of some part of the body is called reparative. The research of this particular phenomenon is a purpose of the Regeneration-1 experiment realizing since 2014th. Research object in the experiment are Planaria and snails.
From the archive. Manned Mission to Mars. 1987. Final chapters
The editorial board of the Korolev's Planet website concludes the publication of the unique archive document Manned Mission to Mars.
Offered to the website visitors are the final chapters of the document:
- the Mars lander.
Conducting biotechnological experiment Struktura in SM module
I, cosmonaut Aleksei Ovchinin, shall tell You about biotechnological experiment Struktura which will be performed by cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka.
SE Structura is dedicated to production of high-quality crystals of recombinant proteins, i.e. proteins DNA of which was created artificially by genetic engineering. Principal investigator of the experiment is Russian enterprise Biopreparat.
The protein crystals are grown for X-ray diffraction analysis necessary to study a spatial structure of proteins and features of synthesis of this drug and biological substrate of the body cell. Knowledge of biomolecule spatial structure in combination with physicochemical data allows to simulate its structural and functional features more fully, that is used to produce effective medical drugs and diagnostic and preventive preparations without side effects.
For X-ray diffraction analysis, large and high-quality crystals are required; it is difficult to produce such crystals under terrestrial conditions because of the presence of gravity and convection phenomena. Therefore, the most optimal conditions for crystallization of proteins are space conditions.
Now we are in the Service Module where Oleg Skripochka begins to conduct activation of the protein crystallization processes. In the experiment science hardware Luch-2M is used; it is intended to grow the protein monocrystals by dialysis (dialysis is a process of the particle separation from the solution due to the difference in the diffusion rate) and the vapor diffusion (the hanging drop method).
Conducting biotechnological experiment Konjugatsia in MRM1 module
Hello, I, cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, shall tell You about biotechnological experiment Konjugatsia. Now I am in Mini Research Module MRM1 where Aleksei Ovchinin will conduct experiment Konjugatsia.
Experiment Konjugatsia is the testing of the genetic material transfer process by the bacteria conjugation method (“conjugation” (from the Latin conjugatio – connection) is a one – way transfer of genetic material from a donor to a recipient). The purpose of the experiment is to develop methods of constructing new strains of recombinant proteins (DNA of these proteins is created artificially using genetic engineering) relevant to medicine. Principal investigator of the experiment is Russian enterprise Biopreparat.
From the archive. Manned Mission to Mars. 1987
The editorial board of the Korolev's Planet website begins to publish materials dedicated to manned exploration of Mars.
This time we offer to the website’s visitors a unique archive document “Manned Mission to Mars”. The document published in 1987 was approved by an outstanding scientist, academician, general designer of NPO Energia Valentin Petrovich Glushko, under whose direction the project of reusable Buran orbiter using heavy launch vehicle Energia was carried out.
Had it not been for the breakup of the USSR, we would have already visited Mars. But as it is, nobody has yet been there. So, we have a chance.
55th anniversary of the launch of first interplanetary probe Venera-1, initiating the exploration of Venus with robotic spacecraft
The first spacecraft to Venus
For the first missions to Venus the Special Design Bureau No.1 (OKB-1 now known as RSC Energia) was preparing two spacecraft under the designation 1VA. The objective of the missions was to gain an experience of getting to Venus, conducting research on the way from the Earth to Venus and during approach to the Earth’s mysterious neighbor. It was impossible to prepare a descent vehicle structure and hardware for direct studies of the planetary atmosphere and surface within the time limits dictated by celestial mechanics.
The structure of the Venera-1 spacecraft was a cylinder with a spherical upper portion. The spacecraft was 2.035 meters in length, and 1.05 meters in diameter. The spacecraft had two solar arrays which charged silver-zinc storage batteries. Attached to the outer surface of the spacecraft structure was a 2-meter parabolic dish antenna, designed to transmit data to Earth at the 922.8 MHz frequency (32 cm wavelength). Installed on the spacecraft were scientific instruments: magnetometer, two ion traps for measuring solar wind parameters, micrometeorite detector, Geiger counter and scintillation detector for measuring radiation in space. Installed in the lower part of the spacecraft was propulsion system KDU-414, intended for correcting the flight path. The spacecraft mass is 643.5 kg.
The upper portion of the spacecraft was an air-tight spherical chamber filled with nitrogen under pressure of 1.2 atmospheres. Contained within this sphere was a so-called ‘pennant’, a small globe with outlines of the Earth continents. Inside the globe was a medal depicting the trajectory from Earth to Venus. The reverse of the medal carried the state emblem of the Soviet Union. This chamber was supposed to float on the surface of the hypothesized venusian ocean.
Medical Space Experiment (SE)“ Algometry”. An investigation of human’s pain sensitivity in the space flight conditions
The report of cosmonauts Mikhail Kornienko and Sergey Volkov on “Algometry” space experiment.
M. Kornienko: Dear visitors of the “Planeta Koroleva” portal!
Today we, the International Space Station cosmonauts, Sergey Volkov and Mikhail Kornienko, want to tell your about one more medical experiment, which is being conducted onboard the International Space Station, it is called “Algometry”.
This experiment relates to “Human in space” biomedical researches section. The experiment is produced by the Institute of Biomedical Problems. It is a new experiment, which started last year onboard the ISS.
The “algometry” experiment is an investigation of human’s pain sensitivity in the space flight conditions. The experiment is fulfilled in order to update methods of delivery of health care to cosmonauts during space flight. This method gets the greatest urgency in perspective long-duration interplanetary flights, when there is no possibility of the injured person’s evacuation from the flight vehicle board.
From the archive. Development of a burrowing lunar station and a lunar engineering machine
The editorial board of the Korolev's Planet website continues to publish materials dedicated to lunar exploration.
This time we offer to the website’s visitors a unique archive document “Report on the development of lunar stations and engineering construction vehicles”. The report was published in 1968, it was approved by S.P.Korolev’s successor Vasili Pavlovich Mishin, who for 20 years (1946-1966) had been S.P.Korolev’s first deputy at Special Design Bureau 1 (OKB-1), and in 1968 was the chief designer of the Central Design Bureau for Experimental Machine-building (TsKBM), which was the name given to OKB-1 after S.P.Korolev died (today it is known as RSC Energia).
The report provides a detailed description of the lunar engineering machine, the burrowing lunar station and lunar construction combine options.
15 years of continued human presence in space onboard the International Space Station (ISS)
The ISS is the largest international high-technology project
More than 20 years ago, on March 15, 1993, the general director of Roskosmos Y.N.Koptev and general designer of S.P.Korolev RSC Energia Y.P.Semenov submitted to NASA management a proposal to construct an international space station based on the Russian project of space station Mir-2 and US space station Freedom.